While there’s really no practical difference, server usage wise, between 100 separate sites and a multisite with 100 sites, a lot of us prefer to use Multisite for a variety of reasons. And today, assuming you have thought long and hard about those reasons, let’s talk about how to take 100 sites and fold them into one multisite. And yes, this will suck. If you read about how to break up a multisite, you may already have an inkling of the pain you’re about to embark on.
Make A Temporary Site
The first thing that makes it hard is that you have to keep your existing site up and running while you import it, no matter how you chose to import. So regardless of if you’re moving subdomains or subfolders, you need to make a temporary site. I like to keep the site names similar, and the same length because it’s easier for me. So if I’m moving a site with the slug ‘donnanoble’ then I’m going to make the new site on my network named ‘donnanobl1‘
There’s a practical reason for this. When I’m all done with everything, I can do a search/replace with any tool to change it back to ‘donnanoble’ and I don’t have to use a tool like the interconnectit Search/Replace DB script that has serialization safe super powers. If you use WP-CLI, the built in
wp search-replace tool has this already, and I’d be using that personally. The point is that you will be renaming everything at the end to the original name eventually.
Bring in the Content
I personally do this via the WordPress Import/Export feature.
Now look, I know you can port over the tables and rename them but … I wouldn’t. Why? The users. The tables for the users have to be pulled over with the right user meta, and you would have to marry the
wp_usermeta tables in a way that no user ID was duplicated. Frankly, I don’t think it’s really possible to do that well. If I had to, I would actually manually create the new users on my Multisite and make a note of that new ID. Oh and of course the user names can’t both be admin. You can’t have two Doctors at once. Well. You can. And I’m sure they all use the same username, but you’re using WordPress and not a TARDIS, so if two users have the same username, then either they’re going to be the same user or you’re going to have to make one a new account.
There are number of you thinking about how many people use ‘admin’ as their username, and yes, that’s exactly what I’m talking about. But if we’re lucky and doctor11 and doctor10 used different login IDs on their sites, then you’re just going to need to copy over the one line in
wp_users for that:
See how he has an ID of 10? That has to match all of these:
They don’t match right now, do they? Nope. The Doctor has an ID of 10, but the snippet I took from his site was for a user ID of 2, so I have to edit everything in
wp_usermeta. Next, I have to rename my tables for
wp_postmeta, etc etc over to
wp_x_posts and so on, to make them match the new site ID. Oh and don’t forget
wp_user_roles! You have to fix that for your new site ID too! And then reattribute all your posts!
You see this slope and how it’s getting really slippery really fast? That’s why I won’t do it. It’s certainly possible, but it’s neither simple nor easy nor safe. Importing and exporting via WP’s built in tools has only two downsides as I see it:
- Your users have to make new passwords
- You have to reconfigure your theme and plugin settings
That first one doesn’t bother me. The second one doesn’t either, since not all the plugins and themes work the same way on Multisite, so I probably want to take the time to do it all cleanly anyway. That does mean that I can’t automate things, but at the same time, I’m not particularly sure I want to. Taking each site one at a time will take longer, but it will let me be careful and test everything every step of the way.
Either way, once you have the site content in place, and your site settings look and feel how you want them to, it’s time to do a flip.
Flip The Sites
Take your original site, donnanoble, and rename it. If it’s a subdomain, turn off whatever weirdness you did in your panel to map the subdomain. For most types of server panels, having both named subdomains and a wildcard can live happily together, because the ‘real’ subdomain will supersede the wildcard. If not, you’ll need to change that subdomain to point to the location of your main install of WordPress. So if you’re in
/public_html/donnanoble/ then that becomes
/public_html/ on it’s own.
Either way, you have this real folder on your server called donnanoble and that needs to be renamed to anything else. At this point, I tend to use donnanoble-disabled because it is. Also it’s not supposed to work anymore.
Once you’ve broken donnanoble, it’s time to go into your network admin, go to the sites page, and edit the donnanobl1 site. Rename that to donnanoble, and check the box to change both home and site URL. Oh, and remember I mentioned search and replace before? Run that now. Change donnanobl1 to donnanoble all over the whole database.
I told you it wasn’t super easy
If you’re like me, you now have a bit of a headache, thinking about doing this 100 times. It’s one of those things that should conceivably be easier than it is, but right now WordPress really only has a way to export content and not settings (which is pretty much why we have such nightmares segregating content and code).
It may be plausible to use tools like BackupBuddy to import, but you still will find yourself at a tense moment when you have to flip the real and temporary sites around.